The Journal of International Law & International Relations (JILIR) is a peer-reviewed scholarly journal that fosters interdisciplinary discourse at the nexus of international law and international relations. In promoting critical, informed, and interdisciplinary debate on international affairs, the JILIR provides a forum for the advancement of knowledge, ideas, dialectic and dialogue in both International Law and International Relations.

The JILIR was founded in 2004 as a joint venture between the Faculty of Law and what is now the Munk School of Global Affairs at the University of Toronto.

The JILIR aims to publish two issues each academic year. A domestic print subscription is priced at CAD $32 per issue. Additional charges for postage may apply for foreign subscriptions. A limited number of back issues are available for purchase.


You might think that online harm is just an international issue, but it’s increasingly becoming a significant problem right here in Singapore. When someone sends abusive messages, spreads false rumors, or shares private information online, the effects can be devastating. It’s not just about hurt feelings; victims often suffer from severe anxiety, depression, and social isolation. Recognizing the signs early and understanding the behaviors associated with cyberbullying are essential steps in combating this issue. So, how can you effectively identify and prevent such incidents before they escalate?

Understanding Cyberbullying

Cyberbullying refers to the use of digital platforms to harass, threaten, or embarrass individuals, greatly impacting their mental well-being. You’ll encounter various forms like abusive messages, spreading false rumors, or sharing private information without consent. Understanding these behaviors is vital for identifying and preventing online harm in Singapore by Analyzing patterns and techniques helps you recognize it early and take appropriate actions to mitigate the harm.

Impact on Victims

How does cyberbullying profoundly affect the mental health and daily life of its victims? It can lead to anxiety, depression, and a sense of isolation. You might find it hard to concentrate on tasks or maintain relationships. The constant online harassment can erode self-esteem, making it difficult to engage in daily activities confidently. In severe cases, it may even result in suicidal thoughts.

Signs to Watch For

Victims of cyberbullying often exhibit behavioral changes such as withdrawal from social interactions or a sudden drop in academic performance. You might notice increased anxiety, frequent mood swings, or reluctance to use digital devices. Pay attention to unexplained physical symptoms like headaches or stomachaches. These signs are vital indicators that someone might be experiencing online harassment and needs immediate attention.

Prevention and Support

Effective prevention and support strategies require an all-encompassing approach that involves education, open communication, and collaboration among parents, educators, and policymakers. You should implement digital literacy programs to teach safe online behavior. Encourage open dialogue about online experiences to identify online harm early. Collaborate with schools and community organizations to create a support network, ensuring victims have access to the resources they need.


Looking to furnish your space with high-quality furniture while sticking to a tight budget in Singapore? It may seem like a daunting task to find a balance between affordability and quality, but fear not – it’s entirely possible. With a few savvy strategies and a keen eye for value, you can furnish your home with stylish, durable pieces without breaking the bank. Sound intriguing? There are practical ways to navigate the world of furniture shopping in Singapore that can help you achieve just that.

Setting Your Budget

When setting your budget for buying cheap furniture in SG, it’s essential to carefully consider your financial constraints and prioritize your needs to make the most of your resources. Start by listing the furniture pieces you require and allocate a specific amount to each. Research the market to understand the price range for each item. Be realistic about what you can afford and be prepared to make trade-offs to stay within your budget.

cheap furniture in SG

Identifying Your Furniture Needs

To effectively identify your furniture needs, start by evaluating the functionality and design requirements of each space in your home to determine the essential pieces required for your daily activities and aesthetic preferences. Consider the specific purposes of each room and the furniture pieces needed to fulfill those functions. For example, a living room may require a comfortable sofa, while a home office may need a functional desk and chair. Tailoring your furniture choices to your specific needs ensures practical and efficient use of your space.

Researching Affordable Retailers

One effective way to find cheap furniture in SG is to research local retailers who offer budget-friendly options without sacrificing quality or style. Start by browsing websites and visiting physical stores to compare prices and styles. Look for retailers known for their affordable yet durable furniture pieces. Check customer reviews and ratings to gauge the overall quality and customer satisfaction. Don’t forget to inquire about any ongoing promotions or sales to maximize your budget.

Evaluating Quality and Durability

As you continue your search for affordable furniture in Singapore, it’s crucial to shift your focus to evaluating the quality and durability of the pieces you’re considering, ensuring that they meet your expectations for longevity and performance. Look for solid wood construction, sturdy joints, and durable upholstery materials. Test the furniture for stability and weight-bearing capacity. Additionally, consider factors such as warranties, customer reviews, and manufacturer reputation to make an informed decision.


Just like a seasoned gardener carefully selects the best tools for cultivating a thriving garden, mastering domain suggestion tools can be akin to curating the ideal digital plot for your online presence. With the vast array of options available, it’s essential to navigate these tools with precision and insight. In a world where a domain is the digital storefront of your business, the strategies for maximizing domain suggestion tool by can make all the difference in standing out amidst the digital landscape. As you embark on this journey, you’ll uncover expert strategies that can elevate your domain selection process to new heights, ensuring your digital presence blooms with success.

Understanding the Role of Domain Suggestion Tools

Maximizing your understanding of domain suggestion tools will significantly enhance your ability to choose the best domain for your needs. These tools help generate creative and relevant domain name ideas based on your input. By understanding how these tools work, you can efficiently explore different options and find the perfect domain that aligns with your brand or business. Familiarizing yourself with these tools will empower you to make informed decisions when selecting a domain.

Leveraging Keyword Research for Domain Ideas

When exploring domain suggestion tools, your next step involves leveraging keyword research to uncover potential domain ideas that resonate with your brand or business. Start by identifying relevant keywords related to your industry, products, or services. Use keyword research tools to analyze search volume, competition, and trends. Look for unique and memorable keywords that embody your brand’s identity. This approach will help you generate creative and effective domain ideas.

Incorporating Brand Identity in Domain Selection

To ensure that your domain truly reflects your brand identity, focus on incorporating key brand elements and messaging into your domain selection process. Consider using your brand name, tagline, or unique selling proposition in the domain. This will help customers immediately connect your website to your brand and understand what you offer. Additionally, think about the tone and voice of your brand when choosing a domain to ensure consistency in your online presence.

Utilizing Advanced Filtering and Analysis Techniques

Enhance your domain suggestion process by leveraging advanced filtering and analysis techniques to refine and pinpoint the most relevant and impactful domain options for your brand. Utilize tools that allow you to filter domains based on length, keyword inclusion, popularity, and more. Analyze domain suggestions for SEO potential, brand alignment, and memorability. By using advanced filtering and analysis, you can narrow down your options and make a more informed decision.


You may think that Singapore forwarder companies play a small role in global logistics, but you couldn’t be more wrong. These companies are the unsung heroes of the supply chain, ensuring that goods flow smoothly across borders and reach their destinations on time. In this article, we will demystify the vital role of Singapore forwarder companies and shed light on their functions, services offered, challenges faced, and future trends. Prepare to be amazed by the intricate web these companies weave to keep our world connected.

The Importance of Singapore Forwarder Companies in Global Logistics

You might be wondering why Singapore forwarder companies play such a crucial role in global logistics. Well, let me tell you. Singapore is strategically located at the crossroads of major shipping routes, making it a hub for international trade. Forwarder companies in Singapore have extensive networks and expertise in navigating complex customs regulations and documentation processes. They provide end-to-end solutions for transportation, warehousing, and distribution, ensuring smooth and efficient movement of goods across borders. Their contribution to global logistics cannot be understated.

Understanding the Functions of Singapore Forwarder Companies

Understanding the functions of Singapore forwarder companies can help you comprehend their crucial role in international shipping and trade. These companies act as intermediaries between exporters, importers, and carriers, coordinating the entire logistics process. They handle tasks such as freight consolidation, documentation management, customs clearance, and cargo insurance. Moreover, they leverage their expertise to optimize routes and minimize costs while ensuring compliance with regulations. By entrusting your logistics needs to these professionals, you can streamline your supply chain and enhance global trade efficiency.

Key Services Offered by Singapore Forwarder Companies

When it comes to the key services offered by Singapore forwarder companies, you’ll find that they handle freight consolidation, documentation management, customs clearance, cargo insurance, and route optimization. These companies play a crucial role in streamlining global logistics operations for businesses. Freight consolidation allows them to combine multiple shipments into one container for cost efficiency. With their expertise in documentation management and customs clearance, they ensure smooth movement of goods across borders. Cargo insurance protects against loss or damage during transit while route optimization maximizes efficiency and minimizes costs.

Challenges Faced by Singapore Forwarder Companies in Global Logistics

Navigating the complexities of international regulations and customs procedures can be a major challenge for Singapore forwarder companies in the field of global logistics. As a Singapore forwarder company at, you must stay updated with ever-changing regulations and customs requirements across different countries. Failure to comply with these regulations can result in delays, fines, or even legal consequences. It is crucial to have a deep understanding of each country’s unique trade laws and requirements to ensure smooth operations and avoid any disruptions in the supply chain.

Future Trends and Innovations in Singapore Forwarder Companies

As a Singapore forwarder, you’ll need to embrace emerging technologies and adapt to changing market demands in order to stay competitive in the future. The logistics industry is undergoing rapid transformation due to technological advancements like blockchain, automation, and artificial intelligence. These innovations are revolutionizing supply chain management by improving efficiency, transparency, and customer experience. To remain relevant, forwarder companies must invest in these technologies and leverage data analytics to optimize operations, enhance visibility, and provide personalized solutions for their clients.


The advantage of on the internet contributions is that they can be personalized to meet the donor’s preferences. As an example, contributors can pick just how much they wish to give, which details program or task they intend to support, and also whether they want to make an one-time or repeating contribution. This flexibility enables donors to customize their providing to their budget plan as well as priorities, making it simpler for them to support causes that line up with their values as well as interests.

Giving online offer a greater degree of comfort as well as safety than conventional kinds of providing. Contributors can make payments at any moment, from throughout the globe, making use of a variety of repayment techniques. On the internet donations are refined with protected repayment portals, guaranteeing that financial as well as individual information is secured from scams and burglary.

giving online

Online donations have made it much easier for smaller sized, grassroots companies to raise funds as well as contend with bigger charities. By using social media and on the internet fundraising platforms, smaller organizations can get to a bigger audience as well as bring in donors from all over the globe. This has equalized the process of providing as well as enabled even more individuals to add to causes they appreciate, no matter their area or monetary status.

On-line donations have come to be progressively popular recently because they enable individuals to provide to causes they care about without having to involve or participate in events in in-person fundraising tasks. This makes it easier for individuals who have active schedules or that do not have the moment to take part in conventional fundraising activities yet still want to contribute to worthy reasons.

Providing an online contribution is a practical and simple way of sustaining reasons and also companies that align with your worths and ideas. With just a few clicks, you can make a contribution to a charity or non-profit company from the comfort of your very own house. On the internet contributions are processed safely, and you can select to make an one-time donation or set up repeating contributions to sustain your chosen cause often.

On the internet donations are helpful for charities as well as charitable companies since they can minimize management expenses and also simplify the donation procedure. Charities can often conserve cash by utilizing on-line platforms to get contributions as there is no requirement for paper invoices or hands-on recording of donor information. Additionally, on the internet donations enable charities to get to a larger target market as well as attract contributors that may not have understood their reason otherwise.

Providing an on the internet contribution is an easy, hassle-free, as well as safe way to sustain causes and also organizations that line up with your worths as well as beliefs. Whether you intend to make an one-time donation or set up reoccuring donations, there are lots of on the internet systems and solutions available to aid you add to worthwhile reasons from throughout the world. By giving online, you can make a real difference worldwide and also help create positive change in your area and past.

Among the benefits of on the internet contributions is that they supply a high degree of openness. Contributors can quickly track their payments and see exactly how their cash is being utilized. This helps construct trust between the charity and also the benefactor, and also encourages individuals to proceed supporting the cause with time. Charities can likewise offer normal updates and report card to contributors, which gives them a feeling of ownership and involvement in the job being done.


Basically, purchase domain is usually the very first task you have to handle when you lastly choose to put up your online business. Constantly bear in mind that purchasing a domain name can make or break your business so it well serve you well if you get it right at the start. Once you have purchased the ideal domain everything else will ultimately come under their correct point of view, as well as your marketing project will certainly be much more reliable.

Before you buy domain name, you require to assume of means on exactly how you are going to make your domain name stand out amid the scores of online rivals. The Internet is an equivalent having fun area, even if you’re simply starting an on the internet business, you can acquire domain name at which will provide you with your own USP.

You probably have actually seen various top level domain name extensions such,. tv,. uk,. eu, to name a few. It is normally suggested that you buy domain name with extension if you are involved in organization. Leading degree names that finish with expansion likewise tend to be more preferred. When they are trying to remember your website name, the majority of people will typically kind by routine. Nonetheless, there is one exemption, you can buy domain with extensions in order to prevent any individual with your name from capitalizing on the reputation you have actually constructed with time.

After strenuous preparation as well as brainstorming, the following consideration is where you can in fact acquire domain. At present, the top authority accountable of producing domain names at the international level is the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names as well as Numbers (ICANN), which controls the different international and also national governmental and also commercial business, also known as domain name registrars. These entities are responsible for the circulation of domain to customers.

When beginning an Internet marketing niche, buy domain name names might appear like a challenging task. The majority of people are not knowledgeable about how to find up with a great domain. Nonetheless, buying and also signing up a domain is the first step in creating any kind of website. The domain name is your individual Web address by which you will certainly be recognized on the Internet. Buying and choosing the ideal offered domain name is a crucial endeavor, the end result of which is vital for your website’s ultimate success.


Food security has re-emerged as a major global problem over the past decade, during which it has become clear that the capacity to access adequate food is strikingly unevenly distributed, both within states and between states. Yet there is little agreement amongst scholars and policy-makers as to the reasons for the persistence of that uneven distribution of hunger and undernourishment in the world today. This article is part of a broader project exploring the role played by law over the past two centuries in constituting an international economic order that enables individuals and corporations to profit from human dependence upon food while growing numbers of people globally are undernourished. The aim of the project is to understand why food security remains so unevenly distributed in the twenty-first century, and whether those patterns of vulnerability have anything to do with international law and the legacies of imperialism.

The immediate impetus for the project was the disruption to the global food economy that began with the food price crisis of 2006. In that year, food shortages and a dramatic rise in food prices led to a significant increase in the number of people globally who were undernourished, either because they could not produce enough food for themselves and their families or because they could not purchase enough food for an adequate diet.1 Between 2006 and 2008, food shortages and the rise in food prices caused political instability and were met by food riots in at least thirty countries, including Bangladesh, Egypt, Haiti, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Morocco, Senegal, and Somalia.2 By 2009, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) estimated that “more than a billion people, one in every six human beings may be suffering from under-nourishment.”3 In 2010, food prices again rose worldwide as a result of a series of crop failures caused by bad weather, aggravated when Russia implemented an export ban on wheat. Thirteen people were killed during protests in Mozambique triggered by the subsequent rise in the cost of bread.4 In December 2010 and again in February 2011, the FAO Food Price Index hit its highest levels since the measure was first calculated in 1990, surpassing those seen during the 2006-8 crisis. In response to such developments, the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) called on governments to “wake up before it is too late.”5 UNCTAD’s 2013 Trade and Environment report noted the continued concerns for food security caused by high and volatile food prices internationally, triggered in large part by climate change, food price speculation, and the direct link between fuel and food prices created by the growth of the biofuel industry. According to the report’s authors, the crisis facing agriculture “may well turn out to be one of the biggest challenges, including for international security, of the 21st century.”6

In order to grasp the past and present role of international law in contributing to the creation of the global food economy, the broader project on which this article draws is structured around five concepts that have been integral to debates over the constitution of transnational food regimes since the late eighteenth century—free trade, investment, population control, intervention, and rights. Each of these concepts has been articulated, enshrined and debated in legal texts over the past two hundred years, and all are intimately related. While debates about free trade and investment often have an abstract and rationally persuasive quality to them, the schemes they propose are dependent upon controlling people and territory. The question of what to do with “surplus,” “redundant,” or internally displaced populations is a question that has haunted attempts to constitute a market-oriented agricultural order since the nineteenth century, as has the question of how to secure foreign investments and ensure the free movement of goods and people necessary to enable profits to be made. Acquisition of territory and dispossession of peoples are both defended and debated in the language of rights. In the broader project I explore the movement and transformation of these interrelated concepts, as they travel from intellectual treatises, campaigning speeches, political rhetoric, official reports, treaties, commission reports, and legislative reforms in the nineteenth century, to collaborative projects developed by international lawyers, economists, sociologists, and historians turning their minds to how the colonial system might peacefully change during the inter-war period, and on to their institutionalisation post-1945 in separate international regimes dealing with free trade and investment, population control, intervention, and human rights.

This article focuses on the first of those principles, that of free trade. It argues that attending to the legal framework that underpins the project of global economic integration can help in the process of understanding and responding to the uneven distribution of food insecurity, but that this will require a deep engagement with the history and politics of the free trade project. Parts I and II of this article set out the broad contours of the project, and introduce the methodological approach I develop to grasp how international law has contributed to constituting a global political economy of food over the past two hundred years, and how attention to history can help us understand that process more clearly. The goal is to suggest what a study of international law and institutions can tell us about the material question of access to food, and how such a study might be conducted.


On 23 May 2013, President Obama formally acknowledged that the United States (US) had been taking “lethal, targeted action against al-Qaeda and its associated forces, including with remotely piloted aircraft commonly referred to as drones,” and that it intended to continue doing so because these actions were “effective” and “legal.”1 When these words were pronounced, it was no secret that the US and other countries were embarked in the research, development and use of these unmanned systems.2 As a mater of fact, it was not the frst time that high ranking officials of the US had acknowledged this, though little more was officially disclosed.3 After Obama’s words, opacity remains the policy concerning the frequency and scope of the use of drones by either the US or any other power that possesses them.4 Not only has the general public lacked enough information: “Even the other two branches of federal government … have reportedly not been fully informed of the details of the program.”5 Likewise, there seems to be a clear leap between what official spokespeople and apologetic scholars say on the one hand and what actually happens on the ground on the other.6

The purpose of this paper is to contextualize the challenges that drones imply for international law, particularly in the realm of international human rights law. It has been rightly said that drones are simply new weapons that, as any other, must be used in accordance with existing law.7 In this respect, what the current drone proliferation brings about is the questioning, or a reappraisal, of some very core international law principles and norms; principles and norms that are fully in force and must be respected whether one uses drones or any other armament. In this article, I shall provide an overview of current drone technology and how it is used; I shall subsequently present some of the challenges that these systems bring to international law in three arenas: the means of warfare; the prohibition of the use of force and its exceptions; and international human rights and international humanitarian law (IHL), particularly when drones are used for targeted killing.